Rule of Thumbs
In the beginning there was TLAR, "That Looks About Right." Pilots learned from experience and tend to fly based on the lessons they had learned over the years. If, for example, pushing the nose over about 1,000 feet prior to level off worked when screaming through the skies with the VSI pegged but waiting till about 300 feet with a slower climb rate was better.
The problem with TLAR is that it takes experience. If you don't have experience you have to hope the old heads are willing to teach and that you have lots of time to observe. The other problem is that the list of things you had to memorize became very long. When you made a mistake, TLAR became TARA, "That Ain't Right, Adjust."
The problem with TLAR is that it takes experience. If you don't have experience you have to hope the old heads are willing to teach and that you have lots of time to observe. The other problem is that the list of things you had to memorize became very long. When you made a mistake, TLAR became TARA, "That Ain't Right, Adjust."
IFR
Turn Radius Turn radius for a 25° bank angle = (nm/min)2 / 9. Circling Approach, 90° Offset To provide circling offset when approaching a runway at 90°, overfly the runway and time for 20 seconds (Category D) or 15 seconds (Category C) before turning downwind. Circling Approach, from Opposite Runway To provide circling offset when approaching from the opposite runway, turn 30° away from heading, time for 60 seconds (Category D) or 53 seconds (Category C), and then turn to parallel the runway on downwind. Bank Angle for Arc Approach The bank angle required to fly an arc is equal to 30 times the aircraft's turn radius (nm) divided by the arc's radius (nm from the station). At low arc distances, this formula tends to be too high. Arc Distance The distance traveled along an arc is equal to the arc radius times the arc angle divided by 60. Holding Pattern Teardrop Angle. A holding pattern teardrop angle can be found by subtracting 70 from the airplane's ground speed (in knots) and dividing the result by the holding pattern leg's distance. Gradient It takes 100 feet vertically to climb or descend at a 1° gradient in 1 nautical mile. It takes 200 feet at 2°, 300 feet at 3°, and so on. Descent Gradient Flight levels divided by nautical miles equals gradient. Descent VVI Nautical miles per minute times descent angle times 100 gives vertical velocity in feet per minute. Top of Descent (3°) Start descent at three times your altitude to lose in thousands of feet to achieve a three degree gradient. Top of Descent (2.5°) Start descent at four times your altitude to lose in thousands of feet to achieve a 2.5 degree gradient. Visual Descent Point A Visual Descent Point is found by subtracting the touchdown zone from the Minimum Descent Altitude and dividing the result by 300. 
Take Off Performance
A 1°C change in temperature from ISA will increase or decrease the takeoff ground roll by 10%. Takeoff distance increases by 15% for each 1000′ DA (Density Altitude) above sea level Rotation speed Vr is equal to approximately 1.15 times Vs A headwind of 10% takeoff speed will reduce ground roll by 20% A 10% change in aircraft weight will result in a 20% change in takeoff distance. The maximum crosswind component is approximately equal to 0.2 x Vs1 Abort the takeoff if 70% of takeoff speed is not reached within 50% of the available runway. Available engine horsepower decreases 3% for each 1000’ of altitude above sea level. Fixed Pitch, Non turbo aircraft  Climb performance decreases 8% for each 1000’ DA above sea level. Variable Pitch, Non turbo aircraft – Climb performance decreases 7% for each 1000’ DA above sea level. Expect to lose 1” of manifold pressure every 1000’ in a climb. TAS increase 2% for each 1000’ in a climb. Standard temperature decreases 2° for each 1000’ Flight Manoeuvres
Use ½ the bank angle for the lead roll out heading. i.e 30° of bank angle Start roll out 15° before desired heading. To make a 6° change in heading, use a standard rate turn then immediately level the wings. To make a 3° change in heading use ½ standard rate turn. The diameter of the “cone of confusion” while passing over a VOR or NDB in NM is ½ the altitude in thousands. Eg Altitude = 6000′ 6000 ÷ 2 = 3 NM Maneuvering speed Va = 1.7 x Vs1 Va decreases 1% for each 2% reduction in weight Vy decreases ½ to 1kt for each 1000’ DA Vy Vx and Vg (best glide) decrease ½ kt for each 100lbs under MGW Vr = 1.15 x Vs TAS = IAS (kts) + FL/2 eg: FL 300, IAS = 240 TAS = 240 + 150 = 390 Kts 
Flight Planning / Navigation
Best Cruise climb speed is the difference between Vx and Vy and add this to Vy. Eg Vx = 65, Vy 75 Difference is 10kts 10kts + Vy 75 =85Kts Enroute Wind Correction Angle – first find the Max Wind Correction Angle (WCA max) as if the wind were a direct 90° crosswind. For practical purposes assume max drift is at 60° to track WCA (max) = Wind Velocity NM per minute Wind = 20Kts Airplane Speed = 120Kts WCA(max) = 20 ÷ 2 WCA(max) = 10° Now find the Wind Correction Angle WCA for the actual forecast wind direction. WCA = WCA(max) x sine of the wind angle eg: Wind 330° at 20 kts Course 360° Wind Angle = 10° x 0.5 (sine 30°) WCA = 5° Heading = 355° Descent Planning
One in Sixty Vertical Navigation. One degree climb or descent angle closely equals 100’/ Nm. This is because 1 Nm in 60 Nm is also 6076’/ 60 Nm = 100’ / Nm Glide Angle = 3° Distance to Runway = 1 Nm 3 x 100’ = 300ft Height above runway To determine the NM distance to start a 3° enroute descent. Divide the altitude to lose ( in Flight Levels) by 3 NM = Flight Level 3 e.g. Altitude to lose = 6,000 (FL 60) 60 / 3 = 20 nm to start descent OR To determine the NM distance to start a 3° enroute descent. Multiply to altitude to descend (in 1000’s) by 3 and add 10% 6 x 3 = 18 add 10% = 1.8 (2) 18 + 2 = 20 nm For a 3° Rate of Descent (ROD) multiply your groundspeed by 5. Descent Groundspeed = 120 120 x 5 = 600 fpm ROD OR For a 3° Rate of Descent (ROD) take half your groundspeed and add a zero. Descent Groundspeed 120 x ½ = 60 600 fpm ROD 
Estimation of Wind Drift and Groundspeed
To estimate drift for each 10Kts of windspeed that you are flying. Maximum drift is when the wind is 90° to the track. For practical purposes assume max drift is at 60° to track To estimate max drift assess the wind angle as a proportion of 60. Airspeed: 60 Kts 70 Kts 80 Kts 90 Kts 100 Kts 110 Kts 120 Kts 150 Kts Max Drift for each 10kt of Wind 10° 9° 7° 6° 6° 5° 5° 4° Examples: Air Speed 100kts 100kts Heading 360° 360° Wind 300° / 20kts 330° / 10 Wind Angle = More than 60° Wind Angle 30° (½ of Max Drift) Max Drift = 12° 3° To estimate Ground Speed Angle of Wind Up to 30° 45° 60° 75° 90° Proportion of total wind on Nose or Tail Max ¾ ½ ¼ Nil eg: Windspeed 20kts 10kts 20Kts Wind angle 60° 60° 75° Groundspeed ±10kts ± 5Kts ± 5kts Timing = ±10 Secs ± 5 Secs ± Secs Increase speed by 10% when flying into a headwind and decrease by 5% with a tailwind For maximum TAS and Range, Load the airplane as close to the aft Centre of Gravity limit as allowable Climb Planning
Add 1 minute to your flight plan for every 1000′ climb to cruise altitude. Cruise altitude = 8000′ Time to add = 8 mins to ETE To find the Rate of Climb required (ROC) multiply the % gradient by the groundspeed. % Gradient = 3.3% Groundspeed = 120 Kts 3.3 x 120 = 400fpm To find the Feet per Minute (FPM), multiply the gradient % by 60 3.3 % Gradient x 60 = 200 fpm Approach & Landing A 10% change in airspeed will cause a 20% change in stopping distance. A narrow runway may give the appearance of being longer, a wide runway may give the appearance of being short. A slippery or wet runway may increase your landing distance by 50%. Use Vso x 1.3 (Vref) for approach speed over the threshold. Plan to touchdown in the first ⅓ of the runway or go around. For each knot of airspeed above Vref over the numbers, the touchdown point will be 100ft further down the runway. For each 1000’ increase in field elevation above Sea Level, stopping distance increases by 4%. 
Quick Tips
DA = Density Altitude PA = Pressure Altitude OAT = Outside Air Temperature ISA = international Standard Temperature E.g. PA = 6000′ OAT = 13° C ISA = 3° C DA = 6000 + 120 (133) DA = 6000 + 120 * 10 DA = 6000 + 1200 DA = 7200′


 When the wind aloft is more southerly and stronger than forecast, it means that the weather may become worse than forecast — especially if the temperature aloft is warmer than forecast. Higher temperature means the atmosphere can hold more moisture. More southerly and stronger winds mean there is a stronger than forecast low or front or trough to the west, heading your way (Northern Hemisphere only).
 70 knots is 118 feet per second, and 60 is 101 fps. So if the approach speed should have been 60 knots and is 70, and if it takes five seconds to dissipate the extra speed, the airplane will have traveled about 550 feet in the float. No firm rule of thumb, but 10 knots extra on the approach speed usually uses about 500 extra feet of runway.
 The air is conditionally unstable if the temperature drops more than 2° per 1,000 feet on ascent.
 When the surface wind shifts to the north or northeast after passage of a cold front, that front may well be back as a warm front in a day or so.
 To descend 500 feet per minute to the destination, start the descent 5 miles out for each 1,000 feet to be lost if the groundspeed is 150 knots. For each 30 knots in either direction, add or subtract 100 fpm. At 180 knots, you'd need 600 fpm; at 450 knots, 1,500 fpm.
 A VOR course deviation indicator reflects 10° off course when full scale in either direction. One degree equals 1 mile when the aircraft is 60 miles from the station, so if you are 60 miles out with a full scale, you are 10 miles off course. If 30 miles out and a half scale (5°), you would be 2.5 miles off course.
 Performance speeds — such as maneuvering, approach, and climb speeds — are often given in the POH only for operations at gross weight. To calculate speeds for lighter weights, decrease the speed by half the percentage of the weight decrease. For example, flying a 3,000poundgross airplane at 2,400 pounds, a 20percent reduction in weight, reduce the applicable speeds by 10 percent to hold the margins the same as at gross.
More coming soon